PICTOGRAPH

THE KHOISAN

Simple crop (panoramic)

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Simple crop (small B)

The San, variously referred to as, Bushmen, Sho, Basarwa, Kung, or Khwe are the remnants of southern Africa’s oldest indigenous groups; where they have lived for at least the last 20,000 years. Their territory is the vast expanse of the Kalahari Desert and previously spanned most areas of Southern Africa. Archaeological evidence has placed them as far north as Libya, Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia, with the evidence of legend & racial type suggesting some traces remain.

The Khoikhoi, who called themselves the First People, are part of the larger Khoisan group that historically have always lived in the desert regions of Africa south of the Zambezi. The San are part of the Khoisan group. Though related to the traditionally pastoral Khoikhoi, they were traditionally hunter-gatherers.

They have provided a wealth of information for the fields of anthropology and genetics. One broad study of African genetic diversity, found that the San were among the five populations with the highest measured levels of genetic diversity and are one of fourteen known "ancestral population clusters" from which all known modern humans descended.

There is a significant linguistic difference between the northern Bushmen living between Okavango (Botswana) and Etosha (Namibia), extending into southern Angola on the one hand and the southern group in the central Kalahari towards the Molopo, who are the last remnant of the previously extensive indigenous San of South Africa.

A set of tools almost identical to that used by the modern San in Botswana and dating to 44,000 BP were discovered at Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal in 2012.